Army Physical Fitness Test
All soldiers in the Active Army, Army National Guard, and Army Reserve must take the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) regardless of their age. The APFT is a three-event physical performance test used to assess muscular endurance and cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness. It is a simple way to measure a soldier’s ability to effectively move his body by using his major muscle groups and CR system. Performance on the APFT is strongly linked to the soldier’s fitness level and his ability to do fitness-related tasks. An APFT with alternate test events is given to soldiers with permanent profiles and with temporary profiles greater than three months’ duration.
While the APFT testing is an important tool in determining the physical readiness of individual soldiers and units, it should not be the sole basis for the unit’s physical fitness training. Commanders at every level must ensure that fitness training is designed to develop physical abilities in a balanced way, not just to help soldiers do well on the APFT.
Commanders should use their unit’s APFT results to evaluate its physical fitness level. APFT results may indicate a need to modify the fitness programs to attain higher fitness levels. However, mission-essential tasks, not the APFT, should drive physical training.
Additional physical performance tests and standards which serve as prerequisites for Airborne/Ranger/Special Forces/SCUBA qualification are provided in DA Pam 351-4.
Methods of Evaluation
Commanders are responsible for ensuring that their soldiers are physically fit (AR 350-15). There are several ways they can assess fitness including the following:
- Testing. This is an efficient way to evaluate both the individual’s and the unit’s physical performance levels.
- Inspection. This evaluates training procedures and indicates the soundness of the unit’s physical fitness program.
- Observation. This is an ongoing way to review training but is not as reliable as testing as an indicator of the unit’s level of fitness.
- Medical examination. This detects individual disabilities, health-re-related problems, and physical problems.
Over-Forty Cardiovascular Screening Program
The Army’s over-40 cardiovascular screening program (CVSP) does the following:
- Identifies soldiers with a risk of coronary heart disease.
- Provides guidelines for safe, regular CR exercise.
- Gives advice and help in controlling heart-disease risk factors.
- Uses treadmill testing only for high-risk soldiers who need it.
All soldiers, both active and reserve component, must take the APFT for record regardless of age unless prohibited by a medical profile. For soldiers who reached age 40 on or after 1 January 1989, there is no requirement for clearance in the cardiovascular screening program before taking a record APFT. Soldiers who reached age 40 before 1 January 1989 must be cleared through the cardiovascular screening program before taking a record APFT. Prior to their CVSP evaluation, however, they may still take part in physical training to include diagnostic APFTs unless profiled or contraindications to exercise exist. All soldiers must undergo periodic physical examinations in accordance with AR 40-501 and NGR 40-501. These include screening for cardiovascular risk factors.
As stated, APFT events assess muscular endurance and CR fitness. The lowest passing APFT standards reflect the minimum acceptable fitness level for all soldiers, regardless of MOS or component. When applied to a command, APFT results show a unit’s overall level of physical fitness. However, they are not all-inclusive, overall measures of physical-combat readiness. To assess this, other physical capabilities must be measured. The APFT does, however, give a commander a sound measurement of the general fitness level of his unit.
Service schools, agencies, and units may set performance goals which are above the minimum APFT standards in accordance with their missions (AR 350-15). Individual soldiers are also encouraged to set for themselves a series of successively higher APFT performance goals. They should always strive to improve themselves physically and never be content with meeting minimum standards. Competition on the APFT among soldiers or units can also be used to motivate them to improve their fitness levels.
Testing is not a substitute for a regular, balanced exercise program. Diagnostic testing is important in monitoring training progress but, when done too often, may decrease motivation and waste training time.
The test period is defined as the period of time which elapses from starting to finishing the three events. It must not take more than two hours. Soldiers must do all three events in the same test period.
The APFT must be administered properly and to standard in order to accurately evaluate a soldier’s physical fitness and to be fair to all soldiers. (Test results are used for personnel actions.)
Individual soldiers are not authorized to administer the APFT to themselves for the purpose of satisfying a unit’s diagnostic or record APFT requirement.
The OIC or NCOIC at the test site must have a copy of FM 21-20 on hand. The supervisor of each event must have the event instructions and standards. Scorers should have a clipboard and an ink pen to record the results on the soldiers’ scorecards.
Two stopwatches are needed. They must be able to measure time in both minutes and seconds.
Runners must wear numbers or some other form of identification for the 2-mile run. The numbers may be stenciled or pinned onto pullover vests or sleeveless, mesh pullovers or attached to the runners themselves.
Soldiers should wear clothing that is appropriate for PT such as shorts, T-shirts, socks, and running shoes (not tennis shoes). They should not wear basketball shoes or other types of court shoes. BDUs may be worn but may be a hindrance on some events.
Anything that gives a soldier an unfair advantage is not permitted during the APFT. Wearing devices such as weight belts or elastic bandages may or may not provide an advantage. However, for standardization, such additional equipment is not authorized unless prescribed by medical personnel. The only exception is gloves. They may be worn in cold weather when approved by the local commander.
Each soldier needs a DA Form 705, Army Physical Fitness Test Scorecard. The soldier fills in his name, social security number, grade, age, and sex.(See *Figure 14-1.) The unit will complete the height and weight data.
See page 14-8.1 for instructions on completing DA Form 705.
ARMY PHYSICAL FITNESS TEST SCORECARD
*Figure 14-1 (continued)
*Figure 14-1 (continued)
*Figure 14-1 (continued)
*Figure 14-1 (continued)
Scorers record the raw score for each event and initial the results. If a soldier fails an event or finds it difficult to perform, the scorer should write down the reasons and other pertinent information in the comment block. After the entire APFT has been completed, the event scorer will convert raw scores to point scores using the scoring standards on the back of the scorecards. (See Figure 14-1.)
The APFT must be properly supervised to ensure that its objectives are met. Proper supervision ensures uniformity in the following:
Scoring the test.
Training of supervisors and scorers.
Preparing the test and controlling performance factors.
Preparations for administering an accurate APFT include the following:
Selecting and training supervisors and scorers.
Briefing and orienting administrators and participants.
Securing a location for the events.
Commanders must strictly control those factors which influence test performance. They must ensure that events, scoring, clothing, and equipment are uniform. Commanders should plan testing which permits each soldier to perform to his maximal level. They should also ensure the following:
Soldiers are not tested when fatigued or ill.
Soldiers do not have tiring duties just before taking the APFT.
Weather and environmental conditions do not inhibit performance.
Safety is the first consideration.
Duties of Test Personnel
Testers must be totally familiar with the instructions for each event and trained to administer the tests. Correctly supervising testees and laying out the test area are essential duties. The group administering the test must include the following:
- OIC or NCOIC.
- Event supervisor, scorers, and a demonstrator for each event.
- Support personnel (safety, control, and medical, as appropriate). There should be no less than one scorer for each 15 soldiers tested. Twelve to 15 scorers are required when a company-sized unit is tested.
OIC OR NCOIC
The OIC or NCOIC does the following:
- Administers the APFT.
- Procures all necessary equipment and supplies.
- Arranges and lays out the test area.
- Trains the event supervisors, scorers, and demonstrators. (Training video tape No. 21-191 should be used for training those who administer the APFT.)
- Ensures the test is properly administered and the events are explained, demonstrated, and scored according to the test standards in this chapter.
- Reports the results after the test.
Event supervisors do the following:
- Administer the test events.
- Ensure that necessary equipment is on hand.
- Read the test instructions, and have the events demonstrated.
- Supervise the scoring of events, and ensure that they are done correctly.
- Rule on questions and scoring discrepancies for their event.
Scorers do the following:
- Supervise the performance of testees.
- Enforce the test standards in this chapter.
- Count the number of correctly per-performed repetitions aloud.
- Record the correct, raw score on each soldier’s scorecard, and initial the scorecard block.
- Perform other duties assigned by the OIC or NCOIC.
Scorers must be thoroughly trained to maintain uniform scoring standards. They do not participate in the test.
The goal of the APFT is to get an accurate evaluation of the soldiers’ fitness levels.
*Instructions for Completing DA Form 7075, Army Physical Fitness Scorecard, June 1998
NAME Print soldier’s last name, first name and middle initial in NAME block.
SSN Print soldier’s social security number in SSN block.
GENDER Print M for male and F for female in GENDER block.
UNIT Print soldier’s unit designation in UNIT block.
DATE Print the date the APFT is administered in DATE block.
GRADE Print soldier’s grade in GRADE block.
AGE Print soldier’s age on the date the APFT is administered in AGE block.
HEIGHT Print soldier’s height in HEIGHT block. Height will be recorded to the nearest inch. If the height fraction is less than � inch, round down to the nearest whole number in inches. If the height fraction is greater than � inch, round up to the next highest whole number in inches.
WEIGHT Print soldier’s weight in WEIGHT block. Weight will be recorded to the nearest pound. If the weight fratction is less than � pound, round down to the nearest pound. If the weight fraction is � pound or greater, round up to the nearest pound. Circle GO if soldier meets screening table weight IAW AR 600-9. Circle NO-GO if soldier exceeds screening table weight IAW AR 600-9.
BODY FAT If soldier exceeds screening table weight, print the soldier’s body fat in the BODY FAT block. Percent body fat is recordedfrom DA Form 5500-R, Body Fat Content Worksheet, Dec 85, for male soldiers and DA Form 5501-R, Body Fat Content Worksheet, Dec 85, for female soldiers. Circle GO if soldier meets percent body fat for their age and gender IAW AR 600-9. Circle NO-GO if soldier exceeds percent body fat for their age and gender IAW AR 600-9. If soldier does not exceed screening table weight or does not appear to have excessive body fat IAW AR 600-9, pring N/A (not applicable) in the BODY FAT block.
PU RAW SCORE The event scorer records the number of correctly performed repititions of the push-up in the PU RAW SCORE block and prints his or her initials in the INITIALS block
SU RAW SCORE The event scorer records the number of correctly performed repititions of the sit-up in the SU RAW SCORE block and prints his or her initials in the INITIALS block.
2MR RAW SCORE The event scorer records the two-mile run time in the 2MR RAW SCORE block. The time is recorded in minutes and seconds. The event scorer then determines the point value for the two-mile run using the standards on the reverse side of the scorecard. The point value is recorded in the 2MR POINTS block and the event scorer prints his or her initials in the INITIALS block. In all cases when a point value falls between two point values, the lower point value is used and recorded. The two-mile run event scored also determines the point value for push-ups and sit-ups using the scoring standards on the reverse side of the scorecard. The point values are recorded in the appropriate push-ups and sit-ups POINTS block and the event scorer prints his or her initials in the INITIALS block. The two-mile run event scorer totals the points from the three events and records the total APFT score in the TOTAL POINTS block.
ALTERNATE AEROBIC EVENT The event scorer prints the alternate aerobic event administered (800-yard swim, 6.2-mile-stationary bicycle ergometer, 6.2-mile-bicycle test or 2.5-mile walk) in the ALTERNATE AEROBIC EVENT block. The time the soldier completes the alternate aerobic event is recorded in minutes and seconds in the ALTERNATE AEROBIC EVENT block. The standards for the alternate aerobic event tests are listed in FM 21-20, Chapter 14, figure 14-9. Scoring for all alternate aerobic events is on a GO or NO-GO basis. No point values are awarded. Circle GO is the soldier completes the alternate aerobic event within the required time or less. Circle NO-GO is the soldier fails to complete the alternate aerobic event within the required time. The alternate aerobic event scorer also determines the point value for push-ups and or sit-ups using the scoring standards on the reverse sode of the scorecard. The point values are recorded in the appropriate push-up or sit-up POINTS block and the event scorer prints his of her initials in the 2MR INITIALS block. The alternate aerobic event scorer also totals the points from the pudh-up and or sit-up events and records the total APFT score in the TOTAL POINTS block.
NCOIC/OIC Signature The NCOIC/OIC checks all test scores for accuracy and signs their name in the NCOIC/OIC Signature block.
COMMENTS The event supervisor, event scorer, NCOIC, or OIC may record comments appropriate to the APFT in the COMMENTS block. Appropriate comments may include: weather conditions, injury during APFT or appeals.
Safety and control people should be at the test site, depending on local policy and conditions. Medical personnel may also be there. However, they do not have to be on site to have the APFT conducted. At a minimum, the OIC or NCOIC should have a plan, known to all test personnel, for getting medical help if needed.
The test site should be fairly flat and free of debris. It should have the following:
- An area for stretching and warming up.
- A soft, flat, dry area for performing push-ups and sit-ups.
- A flat, 2-mile running course with a solid surface and no more than a three-percent grade. (Commanders must use good judgement; no one is expected to survey terrain.)
- No significant hazards, (for example, traffic, slippery road surfaces, heavy pollution).
When necessary or expedient, a quarter-mile running track can “be used. It can be marked with a series of stakes along the inside edge. When the track is laid out, a horizontal midline 279 feet, 9 3/4 inches long must be marked in the center of a clear area. A 120-foot circle is marked at both ends of this line. The track is formed when the outermost points of the two circles are connected with tangent lines. (See Figure 14-2.)
A 400-meter track may be used in place of the standard quarter-mile (440-yard) track for the 2-mile run, However, one lap run on a 400-meter track is 92 inches shorter than one lap on a 440-yard track. Eight laps on a 400-meter track is 736 inches shorter than eight laps (2 miles) on a 440-yard track. Therefore, soldiers who run the 2-mile event on a 400-meter track must run eight laps plus an additional 61 feet, 4 inches.
On test day, soldiers are assembled in a common area and briefed by the test OIC or NCOIC about the purpose and organization of the test. The OIC or NCOIC then explains the scorecard, scoring standards, and sequence of events.
The instructions printed here in large type must be read to the soldiers:
“YOU ARE ABOUT TO TAKE THE ARMY PHYSICAL FITNESS TEST, A TEST THAT WILL MEASURE YOUR MUSCULAR ENDURANCE AND CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS. THE RESULTS OF THIS TEST WILL GIVE YOU AND YOUR COMMANDERS AN INDICATION OF YOUR STATE OF FITNESS AND WILL ACT AS A GUIDE IN DETERMINING YOUR PHYSICAL TRAINING NEEDS. LISTEN CLOSELY TO THE TEST INSTRUCTIONS, AND DO THE BEST YOU CAN ON EACH OF THE EVENTS.”
If scorecards have not already been issued, they are handed out at this time. The OIC or NCOIC then says the following: “IN THE APPROPRIATE SPACES, PRINT IN INK THE PERSONAL INFORMATION REQUIRED ON THE SCORECARD.” (If scorecards have been issued to the soldiers and filled out before they arrive at the test site, this remark is omitted.)
The OIC or NCOIC pauses briefly to give the soldiers time to check the information. He then says the following: “YOU ARE TO CARRY THIS CARD WITH YOU TO EACH EVENT. BEFORE YOU BEGIN, HAND THE CARD TO THE SCORER. AFTER YOU COMPLETE THE EVENT, THE SCORER WILL RECORD YOUR RAW SCORE, INITIAL THE CARD, AND RETURN IT TO YOU.” (At this point, the scoring tables are explained so everyone understands how raw scores are converted to point scores.) Next, the OIC or NCOIC says the following “EACH OF YOU WILL BE ASSIGNED TO A GROUP. STAY WITH YOUR TEST GROUP FOR THE ENTIRE TEST. WHAT ARE YOUR QUESTIONS ABOUT THE TEST AT THIS POINT?”
Groups are organized as required and given final instructions including what to do after the final event. The test is then given.
RETAKING OF EVENTS
Soldiers who start an event incorrectly must be stopped by the scorer before they complete 10 repetitions and told what theirerrors are. They are then sent to the end of the line to await their turn to retake the event.
A soldier who has problems such as muscle cramps while performing an event may rest if he does not assume an illegal position in the process. If he continues, he receives credit for all correctly done repetitions within the two-minute period. If he does not continue, he gets credit for the number of correct repetitions he has performed up to that time. If he has not done 10 correct repetitions, he is sent to the end of the line to retake that event. He may not retake the event if he has exceeded 10 repetitions. Soldiers who are unable to perform 10 correct repetitions because of low fitness levels may not retake an event.
Soldiers who stop to rest in an authorized rest position continue to receive credit for correct repetitions performed after their rest. Soldiers who rest in an unauthorized rest position will have their performance in that event immediately terminated.
The records of soldiers who fail a record APFT for the first time and those who fail to take the APFT within the required period (AR 350-15, paragraph 11) must be flagged IAW AR 600-8-2 (Reference B).
Soldiers who fail any or all of the events must retake the entire APFT. In case of test failure, commanders may allow soldiers to retake the test as soon as the soldiers and commanders feel they are ready. Soldiers without a medical profile will be retested not-later-than three months following the initial APFT failure in accordance with AR 350-15, paragraph 11.
The test sequence is the push-up, sit-up, and 2-mile run (or alternate, aerobic event). The order of events cannot be changed. There are no exceptions to this sequence.
Soldiers should be allowed no less than 10 minutes, but ideally no more than 20 minutes, to recover between each event. The OIC or NCOIC determines the time to be allotted between events, as it will depend on the total number of soldiers who are participating in the APFT. If many soldiers are to be tested, staggered starting times should be planned to allow the proper intervals between events. Under no circumstances is the APFT valid if a soldier cannot begin and end all three events in two hours or less.
The following paragraphs describe the equipment, facilities, personnel, instructions, administration, timing techniques, and scorers’ duties for the pushup, sit-up, and 2-mile-run events.
Push-ups measure the endurance of the chest, shoulder, and triceps muscles. (See Figure 14-3.)
One stopwatch is needed along with one clipboard and pen for each scorer. The event supervisor must have the following the instructions in this chapter on how to conduct the event and one copy of the push-up scoring standards (DA Form 705).
There must be at least one test station for every 15 soldiers to be tested. Each station is 6 feet wide and 15 feet deep.
One event supervisor must beat the test site and one scorer at each station. The event supervisor may not be the event scorer.
The event supervisor must read the following: “THE PUSH-UP EVENT MEASURES THE ENDURANCE OF THE CHEST, SHOULDER, AND TRICEPS MUSCLES. ON THE COMMAND ‘GET SET,’ ASSUME THE FRONT-LEANING REST POSITION BY PLACING YOUR HANDS WHERE THEY ARE COMFORTABLE FOR YOU. YOUR FEET MAY BE TOGETHER OR UP TO 12 INCHES APART. WHEN VIEWED FROM THE SIDE, YOUR BODY SHOULD FORM A GENERALLY STRAIGHT LINE FROM YOUR SHOULDERS TO YOUR ANKLES. ON THE COMMAND ‘GO,’ BEGIN THE PUSH-UP BY BENDING YOUR ELBOWS AND LOWERING YOUR ENTIRE BODY AS A SINGLE UNIT UNTIL YOUR UPPER ARMS ARE AT LEAST PARALLEL TO THE GROUND. THEN, RETURN TO THE STARTING POSITION BY RAISING YOUR ENTIRE BODY UNTIL YOUR ARMS ARE FULLY EXTENDED. YOUR BODY MUST REMAIN RIGID IN A GENERALLY STRAIGHT LINE AND MOVE AS A UNIT WHILE PERFORMING EACH REPETITION. AT THE END OF EACH REPETITION, THE SCORER WILL STATE THE NUMBER OF REPETITIONS YOU HAVE COMPLETED CORRECTLY. IF YOU FAIL TO KEEP YOUR BODY GENERALLY STRAIGHT, TO LOWER YOUR WHOLE BODY UNTIL YOUR UPPER ARMS ARE AT LEAST PARALLEL TO THE GROUND, OR TO EXTEND YOUR ARMS COMPLETELY, THAT REPETITION WILL NOT COUNT, AND THE SCORER WILL REPEAT THE NUMBER OF THE LAST CORRECTLY PERFORMED REPETITION. IF YOU FAIL TO PERFORM THE FIRST TEN PUSH-UPS CORRECTLY, THE SCORER WILL TELL YOU TO GO TO YOUR KNEES AND WILL EXPLAIN TO YOU WHAT YOUR MISTAKES ARE. YOU WILL THEN BE SENT TO THE END OF THE LINE TO BE RETESTED. AFTER THE FIRST 10 PUSH-UPS HAVE BEEN PERFORMED AND COUNTED, HOWEVER, NO RESTARTS ARE ALLOWED. THE TEST WILL CONTINUE, AND ANY INCORRECTLY PERFORMED PUSH-UPS WILL NOT BE COUNTED. AN ALTERED, FRONT-LEANING REST POSITION IS THE ONLY AUTHORIZED REST POSITION. THAT IS, YOU MAY SAG IN THE MIDDLE OR FLEX YOUR BACK. WHEN FLEXING YOUR BACK, YOU MAY BEND YOUR KNEES, BUT NOT TO SUCH AN EXTENT THAT YOU ARE SUPPORTING MOST OF YOUR BODY WEIGHT WITH YOUR LEGS. IF THIS OCCURS, YOUR PERFORMANCE WILL BE TERMINATED. YOU MUST RETURN TO, AND PAUSE IN, THE CORRECT STARTING POSITION BEFORE CONTINUING. IF YOU REST ON THE GROUND OR RAISE EITHER HAND OR FOOT FROM THE GROUND, YOUR PERFORMANCE WILL BE TERMINATED. YOU MAY REPOSITION YOUR HANDS AND/OR FEET DURING THE EVENT AS LONG AS THEY REMAIN IN CONTACT WITH THE GROUND AT ALL TIMES. CORRECT PERFORMANCE IS IMPORTANT. YOU WILL HAVE TWO MINUTES IN WHICH TO DO AS MANY PUSH-UPS AS YOU CAN. WATCH THIS DEMONSTRATION.” (The exercise is then demonstrated. See Figure 14-4 for a list of points that need to be made during the demonstration.) “WHAT ARE YOUR QUESTIONS?”
After reading the instructions, the supervisor answers questions. Then he moves the groups to their testing stations. The event supervisor cannot be ready to begin. Successive groups do the event until all soldiers have completed it.
The event supervisor is the timer. He calls out the time remaining every 30 seconds and every second for the last 10 seconds of the two minutes. He ends the event after two minutes by the command “Halt!”
Scorers must allow for differences in the body shape and structure of each soldier. The scorer uses each soldier’s starting position as a guide throughout the event to evaluate each repetition. The scorer should talk to the soldier before the event begins and have him do a few repetitions as a warm-up and reference to ensure he is. doing the exercise correctly.
The scorer may either sit or kneel about three feet from the testee’s shoulder at a 45-degree angle in front of it. The scorer’s head should be about even with the testee’s shoulder when the latter is in the front-leaning rest position. Each scorer determines for himself if he will sit or kneel when scoring. He may not lie down or stand while scoring. He counts out loud the number of correct repetitions completed and repeats the number of the last correct push-up if an incorrect one is done. Scorers tell the testees what they do wrong as it occurs during the event. A critique of the performance is done following the test.
When the soldier completes the event, the scorer records the number of correctly performed repetitions, initials the scorecard, and returns it to the soldier.
This event measures the endurance of the abdominal and hip-flexor muscles. (See Figure 14-5.)
One stopwatch is needed along with one clipboard and pen for each scorer. The event supervisor must have the following: the instructions in this chapter on how to conduct the event and one copy of the sit-up scoring standards (DA Form 705).
Each station is 6 feet wide and 15 feet deep. Ensure that no more than 15 soldiers are tested at a station.
One event supervisor must be at the test site and one scorer at each station. The event supervisor may not be the event scorer.
The event supervisor must read the following: “THE SIT-UP EVENT MEASURES THE ENDURANCE OF THE ABDOMINAL AND HIP-FLEXOR MUSCLES. ON THE COMMAND “GET SET”, ASSUME THE STARTING POSITION BY LYING ON YOUR BACK WITH YOUR KNEES BENT AT A 90-DEGREE ANGLE. YOUR FEET MAY BE TOGETHER OR UP TO 12 INCHES APART. ANOTHER PERSON WILL HOLD YOUR ANKLES WITH THE HANDS ONLY. NO OTHER METHOD OF BRACING OR HOLDING THE FEET IS AUTHORIZED. THE HEEL IS THE ONLY PART OF YOUR FOOT THAT MUST STAY IN CONTACT WITH THE GROUND. YOUR FINGERS MUST BE INTERLOCKED BEHIND YOUR HEAD AND THE BACKS OF YOUR HANDS MUST TOUCH THE GROUND. YOUR ARMS AND ELBOWS NEED NOT TOUCH THE GROUND. ON THE COMMAND “GO”, BEGIN RAISING YOUR UPPER BODY FORWARD TO, OR BEYOND, THE VERTICAL POSITION. THE VERTICAL POSITION MEANS THAT THE BASE OF YOUR NECK IS ABOVE THE BASE OF YOUR SPINE. AFTER YOU HAVE REACHED OR SURPASSED THE VERTICAL POSITION, LOWER YOUR BODY UNTIL THE BOTTOM OF YOUR SHOULDER BLADES TOUCH THE GROUND. YOUR HEAD, HANDS, ARMS, OR ELBOWS DO NOT HAVE TO TOUCH THE GROUND. AT THE END OF EACH REPETITION, THE SCORER WILL STATE THE NUMBER OF SIT-UPS YOU HAVE CORRECTLY COMPLETED. A REPETITION WILL NOT COUNT IF YOU FAIL TO REACH THE VERTICAL POSITION, FAIL TO KEEP YOUR FINGERS INTERLOCKED BEHIND YOUR HEAD, ARCH OR BOW YOUR BACK AND RAISE YOUR BUTTOCKS OFF THE GROUND TO RAISE YOUR UPPER BODY, OR LET YOUR KNEES EXCEED A 90-DEGREE ANGLE. IF A REPETITION DOES NOT COUNT, THE SCORER WILL REPEAT THE NUMBER OF YOUR LAST CORRECTLY PERFORMED SIT-UP. THE UP POSITION IS THE ONLY AUTHORIZED REST POSITION. IF YOU STOP AND REST IN THE DOWN (STARTING) POSITION, THE EVENT WILL BE TERMINATED. AS LONG AS YOU MAKE A CONTINUOUS PHYSICAL EFFORT TO SIT UP, THE EVENT WILL NOT BE TERMINATED. YOU MAY NOT USE YOUR HANDS OR ANY OTHER MEANS TO PULL OR PUSH YOURSELF UP TO THE UP (RESTING) POSITION OR TO HOLD YOURSELF IN THE REST POSITION. IF YOU DO SO, YOUR PERFORMANCE IN THE EVENT WILL BE TERMINATED. CORRECT PERFORMANCE IS IMPORTANT. YOU WILL HAVE TWO MINUTES TO PERFORM AS MANY SIT-UPS AS YOU CAN. WATCH THIS DEMONSTRATION.” (The exercise is then demonstrated. See Figure 14-6 for a list of points that need to be made during the demonstration.) “WHAT ARE YOUR QUESTIONS?”
After reading the instructions, the supervisor answers questions. He then moves the groups to their testing stations. The event supervisor cannot be a scorer. At this point, the testing is ready to begin. Successive groups do the event until all soldiers have completed it.
The event supervisor is the timer. He calls out the time remaining every 30 seconds and every second for the last 10 seconds of the two minutes. He ends the event after two minutes by the command “Halt!”
The scorer may either kneel or sit about three feet from the testee’s hip. The scorer’s head should be about even with the testee’s shoulder when the latter is in the vertical (up) position. Each scorer decides for himself whether to sit or kneel down when scoring. He may not lie down or stand while scoring. The scorer counts aloud the number of correctly performed sit-ups and repeats the number of the last correctly performed repetition if an incorrect one is done. Scorers tell the testees what they are doing wrong as it occurs during the event. A critique of his performance is given to each soldier after the event. When the soldier completes the event, the scorer records the number of correctly performed sit-ups, initials the scorecard, and returns it to the soldier.
When checking for correct body position, the scorer must be sure that at a 90-degree angle is formed at each knee by the soldier’s upper and lower leg. The angle to be measured is not the one formed by the lower leg and the ground. If, while performing the sit-up event, this angle becomes greater than 90 degrees, the scorer should instruct the testee and holder to reposition the legs to the proper angle and obtain compliance before allowing the testee’s performance to continue. The loss of the proper angle does not terminate the testee’s performance in the event. When the soldier comes to the vertical position, the scorer must be sure that the base of the soldier’s neck is above or past the base of the spine. A soldier who simply touches his knees with his elbows may not come to a completely vertical position. The scorer must ensure that the holder uses only his hands to brace the exerciser’s feet.
This event tests cardiorespiratory (aerobic) endurance and the endurance of the leg muscles. (See Figure 14-7.)
Two stopwatches for the event supervisor, one clipboard and pen for each scorer, copies of the event’s instructions and standards, and numbers for the testees are needed.
There must be a level area with no more than a three-degree slope on which a measured course has been marked. An oval-shaped track of known length may be used. If a road course is used, the start and finish and one-mile (half way) point must be clearly marked.
One event supervisor and at least one scorer for every 15 runners are required.
The event supervisor must read the following: “THE TWO-MILE RUN IS USED TO ASSESS YOUR AEROBIC FITNESS AND YOUR LEG MUSCLES’ ENDURANCE. YOU MUST COMPLETE THE RUN WITHOUT ANY PHYSICAL HELP. AT THE START, ALL SOLDIERS WILL LINE UP BEHIND THE STARTING LINE. ON THE COMMAND ‘GO,’ THE CLOCK WILL START. YOU WILL BEGIN RUNNING AT YOUR OWN PACE. TO RUN THE REQUIRED TWO MILES, YOU MUST COMPLETE (describe the number of laps, start and finish points, and course layout). YOU ARE BEING TESTED ON YOUR ABILITY TO COMPLETE THE 2-MILE COURSE IN THE SHORTEST TIME POSSIBLE. ALTHOUGH WALKING IS AUTHORIZED, IT IS STRONGLY DISCOURAGED. IF YOU ARE PHYSICALLY HELPED IN ANY WAY (FOR EXAMPLE, PULLED, PUSHED, PICKED UP, AND/OR CARRIED) OR LEAVE THE DESIGNATED RUNNING COURSE FOR ANY REASON, YOU WILL BE DISQUALIFIED. (IT IS LEGAL TO PACE A SOLDIER DURING THE 2-MILE RUN. AS LONG AS THERE IS NO PHYSICAL CONTACT WITH THE PACED SOLDIER AND IT DOES NOT PHYSICALLY HINDER OTHER SOLDIERS TAKING THE TEST, THE PRACTICE OF RUNNING AHEAD OF, ALONG SIDE OF, OR BEHIND THE TESTED SOLDIER, WHILE SERVING AS A PACER, IS PERMITTED. CHEERING OR CALLING OUT THE ELAPSED TIME IS ALSO PERMITTED.) THE NUMBER ON YOUR CHEST IS FOR IDENTIFICATION. YOU MUST MAKE SURE IT IS VISIBLE AT ALL TIMES. TURN IN YOUR NUMBER WHEN YOU FINISH THE RUN. THEN, GO TO THE AREA DESIGNATED FOR THE COOL-DOWN AND STRETCH. DO NOT STAY NEAR THE SCORERS OR THE FINISH LINE AS THIS MAY INTERFERE WITH THE TESTING. WHAT ARE YOUR QUESTIONS ON THIS EVENT?”
After reading the instructions, the supervisor answers questions. He then organizes the soldiers into groups of no more than 10. The scorer for each group assigns a number to each soldier in the group. At the same time, the scorer collects the scorecards and records each soldier’s number.
The event supervisor is the timer. He uses the commands “Get set” and “Go.” Two stopwatches are used in case one fails. As the soldiers near the finish line, the event supervisor calls off the time in minutes and seconds (for example, “Fifteen-thirty, fifteen-thirty-one, fifteen-thirty-two,” and so on).
The scorers observe those runners in their groups, monitor their laps (if appropriate), and record their times as they cross the finish line. (It is often helpful to record the soldiers’ numbers and times on a separate sheet of paper or card. This simplifies the recording of finish times when large groups of soldiers are simultaneously tested.) After all runners have completed the run, the scorers determine the point value for each soldier’s run time, record the point values on the scorecards, and enter their initials in the scorers’ blocks. In all cases, when a time falls between two point values, the lower point value is used and recorded. For example, if a female soldier, age 17 to 21, runs the two miles in 15 minutes and 19 seconds, the score awarded is 95 points.
At this time, the scorers for the 2-mile run also convert the raw scores for the push-up and sit-up events by using the scoring standards on the back side of the scorecard. They enter those point values on the scorecards and determine the total APFT score for each soldier before giving the scorecards to the test’s OIC or NCOIC. After the test scores have been checked, the test’s OIC or NCOIC signs all scorecards and returns them to the unit’s commander or designated representative.
The soldier’s fitness performance for each APFT event is determined by converting the raw score for each event to a point score.
Properly interpreted, performance on the APFT shows the following:
- Each soldier’s level of physical fitness.
- The entire unit’s level of physical fitness.
- Deficiencies in physical fitness.
- Soldiers who need special attention.(Leaders must develop special programs to improve the performance of soldiers who are below the required standards.)
Commanders should not try to determine the individual’s or the unit’s strengths and weaknesses in fitness by using only the total scores. A detailed study of the results on each event is more important. For a proper analysis of the unit’s performance, event scores should be used. They are corrected for age and sex. Therefore, a female’s 80-point push-up score should be considered the same as a male’s 80-point push-up score. Using the total point value or raw scores distort interpretation.
Scores Above Maximum
Even though some soldiers exceed the maximum score on one or more APFT events, the official, maximum score on the APFT must remain at 300 (100 points per event). Some commanders, however, want to know unofficial point scores to reward soldiers for their extra effort.
Only those soldiers who score 100 points in all three events are eligible to determine their score on an extended scale. To fairly determine the points earned, extra points are awarded at the same rate as points obtained for scores at or below the 100 point level. Each push-up and sit-up beyond the maximum is worth one point as is every six-second decrease in the run time. Take, may distort the for example, the following case shown in Figure 14-8. A male soldier performs above the maximum in the 17-21 age group by doing 87 push-ups and 98 sit-ups and by running the two miles in 11 minutes and 12 seconds. His score would be calculated as follows:
The calculations on Figure 14-8, give the soldier a total score of 318 points. This method lets the commander easily determine the scores for performances that are above the maximum. He may recognize soldiers for their outstanding fitness achievements, not only on the APFT but also for other, unofficial fitness challenges. Using this method ensures that each soldier has an equal chance to be recognized for any of the tested fitness components. Commanders may also establish their own incentive programs and set their own unit’s standards (AR 350-15).
A soldier with a temporary profile must take the regular three-event APFT after the profile has expired. (Soldiers with temporary profiles of more than three months may take an alternate test as determined by the commander with input from health-care personnel.) Once the profile is lifted, the soldier must be given twice the time of the profile (but not more than 90 days) to train for the APFT. For example, if the profile period was 7 days, the soldier has 14 days to train for the APFT after the profile period ends. If a normally scheduled APFT occurs during the profile period, the soldier should be given a mandatory make-up date.
A permanently profiled soldier is given a physical training program by the profiling officer using the positive profile form DA 3349 (see Appendix B). The profiling officer gives the unit’s commander a list of physical activities that are suitable for the profiled soldier. He also indicates the events and/or alternate aerobic event that the soldier will do on the APFT. This recommendation, made after consultation with the profiled soldier, should address the soldier’s abilities and preference and the equipment available. (See DA Form 3349, Physical Profile, referenced in AR 40-501.)
The profiled soldier must perform all the regular APFT events his medical profile permits. Each soldier must earn at least 60 points on the regular events to receive a “go.” He must also complete the alternate event in a time equal to or less than the one listed for his age group. For example, a soldier whose profile forbids only running will do the push-up and sit-up events and an alternate aerobic event. He must get at least a minimum passing score on each event to earn a “go” for the test. A soldier whose profile prevents two or more APFT events must complete the 2-mile run or an alternate aerobic event to earn a “go” on the test. Soldiers who cannot do any of the aerobic events due to a profile cannot be tested. Such information will be recorded in their official military record.
The standards for alternate events are listed in Figure 14-9. Scoring for all alternate events is on a go/no go basis. Soldiers who do push-up and sit-up events but who take an alternate aerobic event are not awarded promotion points for APFT performance.
ALTERNATE TEST STANDARDS BY EVENT, SEX, AND AGE
(Stationary and track)
Alternate APFT events assess the aerobic fitness and muscular endurance of soldiers with permanent medical profiles or long-term (greater than three months) temporary profiles who cannot take the regular, three-event APFT.
The alternate aerobic APFT events are the following:
- 800-yard-swim test.
- 6.2-mile-stationary-bicycle ergometer test with a resistance setting of 2 kiloponds (2 kilograms) or 20 newtons.
- 6.2-mile-bicycle test on a conventional bicycle using one speed.
- 2.5-mile-walk test.
This event is used to assess cardiorespiratory (aerobic) fitness. (See Figure 14-10.)
Two stopwatches, one clipboard andpen for each scorer, one copy each of the test instructions and standards, and appropriate safety equipment are needed.
A swimming pool at least 25 yards long and 3 feet deep, or an approved facility, is needed.
One event supervisor and at least control, and medical personnel must
The event supervisor must read the following statement: “THE 800-YARD SWIM IS USED TO ASSESS YOUR LEVEL OF AEROBIC FITNESS. YOU WILL BEGIN IN THE WATER; NO DIVING IS ALLOWED. AT THE START, YOUR BODY MUST BE IN CONTACT WITH THE WALL OF THE POOL. ON THE COMMAND ‘GO,’ THE CLOCK WILL START. YOU SHOULD THEN BEGIN SWIMMING AT YOUR OWN PACE, USING ANY STROKE OR COMBINATION OF STROKES YOU WISH. YOU MUST SWIM (tell the number) LAPS TO COMPLETE THIS DISTANCE. YOU MUST TOUCH THE WALL OF THE POOL AT EACH END OF THE POOL AS YOU TURN. ANY TYPE OF TURN IS AUTHORIZED. YOU WILL BE SCORED ON YOUR ABILITY TO COMPLETE THE SWIM IN A TIME EQUAL TO, OR LESS THAN, THAT LISTED FOR YOUR AGE AND SEX. WALKING ON THE BOTTOM TO RECUPERATE IS AUTHORIZED. SWIMMING GOGGLES ARE PERMITTED. BUT NO OTHER EQUIPMENT IS AUTHORIZED. “WHAT ARE YOUR QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS EVENT?”
After reading the instructions, the event supervisor answers only related questions. He assigns one soldier to each lane and tells the soldiers to enter the water. He gives them a short warm-up period to acclimate to the water temperature and loosen up. Above all, the event supervisor must be alert to the safety of the testees throughout the test.
The event supervisor is the timer. He uses the commands “Get set” and “Go.” Two stopwatches are used in case one fails. As the soldiers near the finish, the event supervisor begins calling off the elapsed time in minutes and seconds (for example, “Nineteen-eleven, nineteen-twelve, nineteen-thirteen,” and so on.) The time is recorded when each soldier touches the end of the pool on the final lap or crosses a line set as the 800-yard mark.
Scorers must observe the swimmers assigned to them. They must be sure that each swimmer touches the bulk-head at every turn. The scorers record each soldier’s time in the 2-mile-run block on the scorecard and use the comment block to identify the time as an 800-yard-swim time. If the pool length is measured in meters, the scorers convert the exact distance to yards. To convert meters to yards, multiply the number of meters by 39.37 and divide the product by 36, that is, (meters x 39.37)/36 = yards. For example, 400 meters equals 437.4 yards, that is, (400 x 39.37)/36 = 437.4 yards.
6.2-MILE STATIONARY-BICYCLE ERGOMETER TEST
This event is used to assess the soldier’s cardiorespiratory and leg-muscle endurance. (See Figure 14-11.)
Two stopwatches, one clipboard and pen for each scorer, a copy of the test instructions and standards, and one stationary bicycle ergometer are needed. The ergometers should measure resistance in kiloponds or newtons. The bicycle should be one that can be used for training and testing. Its seat and handlebars must be adjustable to let the soldier fully extend his legs when pedaling. It should have an adjustable tension setting and an odometer. The resistance is usually set by a tension strap on a weighted pendulum connected to the flywheel. See Appendix D for guidance on using various types of stationary bikes.
The test site can be any place where there is an approved bicycle ergometer. This could be the post’s fitness facility or the hospital’s therapy clinic. Each test station must be two yards wide and four yards deep.
One event supervisor and at least one scorer for every three soldiers to be tested are required. Appropriate safety, control, and medical personnel should also be present.
The event supervisor must read the following: “THE 6.2-MILE STATIONARY-BICYCLE ERGOMETER EVENT TESTS YOUR CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS AND LEG MUSCLE ENDURANCE. THE ERGOMETER’S RESISTANCE MUST BE SET AT TWO KILOPOUNDS (20 NEWTONS). ON THE COMMAND ‘GO,’ THE CLOCK WILL START, AND YOU WILL BEGIN PEDALING AT YOUR OWN PACE WHILE MAINTAINING THE RESISTANCE INDICATOR AT TWO POUNDS. YOU WILL BE SCORED ON YOUR ABILITY TO COMPLETE 6.2 MILES (10 KILOMETERS), AS SHOWN ON THE ODOMETER, IN A TIME EQUAL TO OR LESS THAN THAT LISTED FOR YOUR AGE AND SEX. WHAT ARE YOUR QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS EVENT?”
After reading the instructions, the event supervisor answers any related questions. Each soldier is given a short warm-up period and allowed to adjust the seat and handlebar height.
The event supervisor is the timer. He uses the commands “Get set” and “Go.” Two stopwatches are used in case one fails. As the soldiers pedal the last two-tenths of the test distance, the event supervisor should start calling off the time in minutes and seconds (for example, “Twenty-thirty-one, twenty-thirty -two, twenty-thirty-three,” and so on). He calls the time remaining every 30 seconds for the last two minutes of the allowable time and every second during the last ten seconds.
Scorers must ensure that the bicycle ergometer is functioning properly. They must then make sure that the bicycle ergometers’ tension settings have been calibrated and are accurate and that the resistance of the ergometers has been set at two kiloponds (20 newtons). The scorers must observe the soldiers throughout the event. From time to time the scorer may need to make small adjustments to the resistance control to ensure that a continuous resistance of exactly 2 kiloponds (20 newtons) is maintained throughout the test. At the end of the test, they record each soldier’s time on the score-card in the 2-mile-run block, initial the appropriate block, and note in the comment block that the time is for a 6.2-mile stationary-bicycle ergometer test.
6.2-MILE BICYCLE TEST
This event is used to assess the soldier’s cardiorespiratory and leg-muscle endurance.
Two stopwatches, one clipboard and pen for each scorer, a copy of the test instructions and standards, and numbers are needed. Although one-speed bicycles are preferred for this event, multispeed bicycles may be used. If a multispeed bicycle is used, measures must be taken to ensure that only one gear is used throughout the test. (This can usually be done by taping the gear shifters at the setting preferred by the testee.)
A relatively flat course with a uniform surface and no obstacles must be used. It must also be clearly marked. Soldiers should not be tested on a quarter-mile track, and they should never be out of the scorers’ sight. The course should be completely free of runners and walkers.
One event supervisor and at least one scorer for every 10 soldiers are required. Safety, control, and medical personnel should also be present as appropriate.
The event supervisor must read the following: “THE 6.2-MILE BICYCLE TEST IS USED TO ASSESS YOUR CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS AND LEG MUSCLES’ ENDURANCE. YOU MUST COMPLETE THE 6.2 MILES WITHOUT ANY PHYSICAL HELP FROM OTHERS. YOU MUST KEEP YOUR BICYCLE IN ONE GEAR OF YOUR CHOOSING FOR THE ENTIRE TEST. CHANGING GEARS IS NOT PERMITTED AND WILL RESULT IN DISQUALIFICATION. TO BEGIN, YOU WILL LINE UP BEHIND THE STARTING LINE. ON THE COMMAND ‘GO,’ THE CLOCK WILL START, AND YOU WILL BEGIN PEDALING AT YOUR OWN PACE. TO COMPLETE THE REQUIRED DISTANCE OF 6.2 MILES, YOU MUST COMPLETE (describe the number of laps, start and finish points, and course layout). YOU WILL BE SCORED ON YOUR ABILITY TO COMPLETE THE DISTANCE-OF 6.2 MILES ( 10 KILOMETERS) IN A TIME EQUAL TO OR LESS THAN THAT LISTED FOR YOUR AGE AND SEX. IF YOU LEAVE THE DESIGNATED COURSE FOR ANY REASON, YOU WILL BE DISQUALIFIED. WHAT ARE YOUR QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS EVENT?”
After reading the instructions, the event supervisor answers any related questions. He then organizes the soldiers into groups of no more than ten and assigns each group to a scorer. Scorers assign numbers to the soldiers in their groups and record each soldier’s number on the appropriate scorecard.
The event supervisor is the timer. He uses the commands “Get set” and “Go.” Two stopwatches are used in case one fails. As soldiers near the end of the 6.2-mile ride, the event supervisor starts calling off the time in minutes and seconds (for example, “Thirty-twenty-one, thirty-twenty-two, thirty-twenty-three,” and so on).
When the event is over, scorers record each soldier’s time in the 2-mile-run block. They initial the appropriate block and note in the comment block that the time is for a 6.2-mile-bicycle test and whether or not the testee met the required standards for his age and sex.
This event serves to assess cardiorespiratory and leg-muscle endurance.
Two stopwatches, one clipboard and pen for each scorer, numbers, and copies of the test instructions and standards are needed.
This event uses the same course as the 2-mile run.
One event supervisor and at least one scorer for every three soldiers to be tested are required. Appropriate safety, control, and medical personnel should be present.
The event supervisor must read the following: “THE 2.5-MILE WALK IS USED TO ASSESS YOUR CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS AND LEG-MUSCLE ENDURANCE. ON THE COMMAND ‘GO,’ THE CLOCK WILL START, AND YOU WILL BEGIN WALKING AT YOUR OWN PACE. YOU MUST COMPLETE (describe the number of laps, start and finish points, and course layout). ONE FOOT MUST BE IN CONTACT WITH THE GROUND AT ALL TIMES. IF YOU BREAK INTO A RUNNING STRIDE AT ANY TIME OR HAVE BOTH FEET OFF THE GROUND AT THE SAME TIME, YOUR PERFORMANCE IN THE EVENT WILL BE TERMINATED. YOU WILL BE SCORED ON YOUR ABILITY TO COMPLETE THE 2.5-MILE COURSE IN A TIME EQUAL TO OR LESS THAN THAT LISTED FOR YOUR AGE AND SEX. WHAT ARE YOUR QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS EVENT?”
After reading the instructions, the event supervisor answers any related questions. He then divides the soldiers into groups of no more than three and assigns each group to a scorer. Each soldier is issued a number which the scorer records on the scorecard.
The event supervisor is the timer. He uses the commands “Get set” and “Go.” Two stopwatches are used in case one fails. As the soldiers near the end of the 2.5-mile walk, the event supervisor starts calling off the elapsed time in minutes and seconds (for example, “Thirty-three-twenty-two, thirty-three-twenty-three, thirty-three twenty-four,” and so on).
Scorers must observe the soldiers during the entire event and must ensure that the soldiers maintain a walking stride. Soldiers who break into any type of running stride will be terminated from the event and given a “no go.” When the event is over, scorers record the time in the 2-mile-run block on the scorecard, initial the appropriate block, and note in the comment block that the time is for a 2.5-mile walk and whether or not the testee received a “go” or “no go.”
- Table of Contents
- Chapter 1 - INTRODUCTION
- Chapter 2 - CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS
- Chapter 3 - MUSCULAR ENDURANCE AND STRENGTH
- Chapter 4 - FLEXIBILITY
- Chapter 5 - BODY COMPOSITION
- Chapter 6 - NUTRITION AND FITNESS
- Chapter 7 - CIRCUIT TRAINING AND EXERCISE DRILLS
- Chapter 8 - OBSTACLE COURSES AND ADDITIONAL DRILLS
- Chapter 9 - COMPETITIVE FITNESS ACTIVITIES
- Chapter 10 - DEVELOPING THE UNIT PROGRAM
- Chapter 11 - PHYSICAL TRAINING DURING INITIAL ENTRY TRAINING
- Chapter 12 - ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
- Chapter 13 - INJURIES
- Chapter 14 - ARMY PHYSICAL FITNESS TEST
- APPENDIX A - PHYSIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SEXES
- APPENDIX B - POSITIVE PROFILE FORM
- APPENDIX C - PHYSICAL FITNESS LOG
- APPENDIX D - STATIONARY BICYCLE TEST
- APPENDIX E - SELECTING THE RIGHT RUNNING SHOE
- APPENDIX F - CALCULATIONS OF VO2 MAX
- APPENDIX G - PERCEIVED EXERTION
- APPENDIX H - THE MAJOR SKELETAL MUSCLES OF THE HUMAN BODY
- AUTHORIZATION LETTER